Los objetivos generales del diplomado Chilean Studies son entregar una perspectiva general sobre la cultura e historia chilena desde un enfoque interdisciplinario, crear espacios para la reflexión teórica y producción académica investigativa en torno al estudio de la cultura y de la historia de Chile. Tanto a través de la discusión como del análisis de textos culturales (literatura, cine, arte, expresiones/narrativas de la vida cotidiana, ritos políticos, tratados intelectuales, sucesos históricos, etc.), entre otras metodologías, el diplomado indaga en la cultura y la historia chilena a través del tiempo, explorando cómo esta se ha articulado, re-articulado conforme a los distintos fenómenos históricos que han acontecido. Este programa busca entregar a sus participantes no solo los conocimientos teóricos, sino que también las herramientas analíticas que les permitan comprender mejor la sociedad chilena en la que están insertos.
The main objective of the program is for students to achieve a deeper understanding of Chilean culture and history. Furthermore, students will broaden their capacity to engage critically, and theoretically, with Chilean cultural texts, and link them back to their real world contexts via fieldwork experiences. In the process of exploring and articulating Chilean themes—participating in the analysis of films, texts, and visiting field sites—students will have the opportunity to improve their Spanish language skills; and throughout the semester they will work to produce a short film where they are able to apply what they have learned in the program in the research and production of an audiovisual representation of a specific cultural form or practice.
I. Introduction to Visual Anthropology
The Introduction to Visual Anthropology module will provide students with the basic theoretical and practical tools that they can apply when learning about Chilean history and culture. For example, students will learn the basic concepts related to the anthropological study of culture: culture, ethnography, ethnocentrism, race, ethnicity, gender, identity, enculturation, cultural diffusion, colonialism, representation, etc.
Importantly, the module introduces students to concepts that will help them analyze cultural forms and practices: patterns and configurations of different cultures or cultural epochs (i.e. understanding of being), the different cultural scales of human societies, how cultures change (through diffusion, contact, etc.), how culture tends to be hegemonic (i.e. colonialism, post-colonialism, empire and globalization), and often counter-hegemonic (i.e. social movements that lead to a breakdown of the social order).
In this module, students are also introduced to the main tenets of visual anthropology (a sub-field of cultural anthropology) by way of the analysis of ethnographic films (and other media) in order to become acquainted with how culture is represented and reproduced visually. As part of this, students will receive a basic introduction to audiovisual production and post-production so that they may apply newly acquired skills to the development of their final project. They will also have the opportunity to share and comment on each other’s final projects as these move towards completion.
II. Intercultural Communication
The Intercultural Communication module provides basic knowledge about Chilean institutions, cultural forms, and organizations in order to facilitate a better understanding of Chilean society, but also to provide a foundation for the themes and topics that are covered in the other modules. The module analyzes social customs and traditions so that students may become aware of and comprehend cultural differences in their everyday contexts, and learn how to manage them successfully. Topics discussed include an overview of the Chilean Political Constitution, the basics of the Chilean political structure, a panorama of organized religions in Chile, the education system, gender roles, etc. The Intercultural Communication module also incorporates field site visits, including the National Cemetery, Plaza de Armas, and the Civic Center, among others.
III. Chilean History and Culture Through Film
In the Chilean History and Culture Through Film module, students watch, analyze and comment on documentary and feature films that deal with Chilean recent history. Students participate actively in the analysis and in the discussion of films, applying what they have learned about Chilean history, culture, literature, and about film, to the discussions that take place in each class.
The films covered in this module work to provide an audiovisual overview of recent Chilean history, which begins with a general introduction to the recent history of Chile. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, several important social and political events (The Cuban Revolution, the Cold War, The May Protests of 1968, Liberation Theology, Agrarian Reform, and the election of Salvador Allende in 1970) took place, all of which are briefly considered in this introduction. The Unidad Popular era, and the challenges faced by Salvador Allende’s administration (1970-1973), is analyzed through the filmic perspective of documentary filmmaker Patricio Guzmán and his film The Battle of Chile. The military coup and the subsequent dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet are explored through Missing (Costa-Gavras), El Mocito (Marcela Said) and Chicago Boys (Carola Fuentes). The module also analyzes the long and difficult struggle for human rights and democracy in Chile. These social and political movements are analyzed from the point of view of the film The Invisible Country (Anthony Rauld). The plebiscite of 1988 is explored through Pablo Larraín’s No. The democratic transition and the struggle to come to terms with the human rights violations committed during the dictatorship are approached by way of the film Memoria Obstinada by Patricio Guzman, while the consolidation of neoliberal culture is approached through the eyes of Alberto Fuguet with his film Se Arrienda. Some of the social effects of the transition, as well as the more recent events and themes of contemporary Chile, are explored through the film La Negra (Anthony Rauld), and Aquí se Construye (Ignacio Aguero). Finally, the social eruption (estallido social) that took place on October 18th, 2019, will be analyzed with the help of the film The Dinosaurs had Feathers (Anthony Rauld), currently in production.
IV. Chilean History
The Chilean History module provides students with an overview of the major periods or epochs that make up Chilean history, including the colonial era, national independence, the rise of the Chilean Republic, the War of the Pacific, the so-called “pacification” of Mapuche territory, the nitrate era, and the ratification of the Constitution of 1925, among others. The main objective is to help students contextualize contemporary Chilean culture and society by connecting with Chile’s past.
V. Social Inequality and National Crisis in Chile
On October 18th, 2019, an unprecedented and spontaneous event took place, an event that shook the entire country, with reverberations and repercussions Chile is still grappling with.
On that night, it became clear that a massive social upheaval was taking place, a social eruption—a national crisis—that was so sharp and focused that it prompted the government to declare a national emergency in Santiago, and eventually in all major cities in the country. Within hours, the government gave the military complete authority over all movement in the streets, and a national curfew was imposed the following night. What had begun with a relatively insignificant protest against a public transportation fee hike had set off a chain reaction that left no one indifferent. On October 25th, just one week after Chile erupted, 1.2 million Chileans marched down Alameda Avenue demanding an end to the military occupation, an end to Sebastian Piñera’s government, and an end to the social and economic injustices that have plagued Chile for decades.
The module Social Inequality and National Crisis in Chile provides a sociological perspective on the processes and events that have led up to the estallido social of 2019, as well as an overview of Chilean society today as it moves into a new era—where fundamental social and structural changes are slated to take place.
VI. The Mapuche of Chile
This module provides an overview of Mapuche culture and history, as well as the most important manifestations of Mapuche political and cultural resistance. The module also seeks to contextualize the current tensions between Mapuche communities and the Chilean state. Additionally, the module introduces students to the main components of Mapudungun, the Mapuche language.
The areas related to Mapuche culture covered in this module include: Mapuche Medicine, History, Politics and Resistance, Food, The Urban Mapuche, Mapuche Philosophy, and Family and Traditional Dress. Two field site visits are also contemplated: Cerro Huelén (Cerro Santa Lucía ) and Ruka Inchiñ Mapu La Pintana (Mapuche cultural center).
The module will also include several screenings of short films and clips (produced by Anthony Rauld) on a variety of topics and issues related to the Mapuche people of Chile. These films provide visual introductions to the themes covered in each class.
VII. The Music and Popular Culture of Chile
The Music and Popular Culture of Chile module provides an overview of Chilean popular music and culture. The course provides a unique perspective on Chilean history and culture by focusing on the way that different cultural influences came together to take root in this part of the world during the colonial period. This Chileanness is explored across time and space by the instructor Luis Le-Bert, a Chilean singer-songwriter (lead singer of the mythical New Song movement band Santiago del Nuevo Extremo), using a highly phenomenological, experimental, and performance-based pedagogical style, providing students with an invaluable experience they will never forget.
The module includes various musical expressions and traditions that have marked Chile during its recent past and present, as well as a variety of cultural manifestations of popular art: murals, food, paintings, theatre, folk dances, religious festivals, etc. This module will also include the participation of several guest speakers and musicians, and will contemplate three field site visits: A visit to El Huaso Enrique Restaurant, an intimate Concert with Luis’ band Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, and a special invitation to the Victor Jara Music Festival (FAM).
VIII. Chilean Literature
The Chilean Literature module introduces students to the main literary voices of Chile, including renowned figures such as Blest Ghana, Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda, Roberto Bolaño, Diamela Eltit, Vicente Huidobro, José Donoso, Hernán Rivera Letelier, Pedro Lemebel, Isabel Allende, Maria Luisa Bombal and Nicanor Parra. This module will also include a special field site visit to Pablo Neruda’s personal library archive housed at the Archivo Central Andres Bello, located within the confines of the historical Casa Central (main campus) of the Universidad de Chile, which is located in downtown Santiago.
IX. The Chilean State and Political Economy
This module discusses some of the main aspects of the Chilean political economy: the neoliberalization of the economy, the unequal distribution of wealth and income, the regional variations of the economy (and the centralization of economic and political power in Santiago), the plunder and exploitation of Chile’s most vital and non-renewable resources, and the movements that have led various struggles in order to challenge the social and environmental policies and practices of modern Chile.
X. Field Site Visits
The Chilean Studies program contemplates a variety of Field Site Visits, which provide students with opportunities to explore and analyze various locations (national and political landmarks, cemeteries, temples, memorials, museums, archives, historic neighborhoods, public parks, etc.) linked to the course contents. Students will visit these field sites accompanied by instructors, and for most locations, they will also receive a Chilean Studies audio podcast produced exclusively for Chilean Studies students and specifically for these locations. These audio podcasts will provide students with essential background information related to the field sites, as well as additional issues or themes that function to link the locations with current events and on-going debates. Students will be required to observe, engage, and analyze specific cultural and historical forms during their field site visit, and they will be prompted to articulate their own interpretation of the phenomena observed, which will be shared during subsequent class sessions.
Anthony Rauld y Claudia Flores
Miércoles 16 de enero de 2019